Acute inflammation of the tissues located around the apex of the root, which leads to the accumulation of a large amount of pus in the bone or under the mucosa of the mouth.


Highly flexible material used to make, support and repair dental prostheses. It is traditionally used in pink but can also be found colourless – for allergy sufferers.


Material used in prosthodontics and orthodontics for taking dental impressions for, among other things, removable dental appliances.

Aphta (Aphthous stomatitis)

Oval-shaped ulcer with erosion underneath. They can occur in one or several places, and can range in diameter from 1 mm to 2 cm in. They form in the mouth, usually when the body's immunity is reduced.



Material that replaces natural bone and has direct contact with the tissues of the body. At the Cichoń Dental Centre, we use only the highest quality biomaterials.

Bone grafting

Reconstruction of lost bone tissue from the alveolar ridge of the maxilla and mandible using biomaterials or own bone graft.


A medical term describing pathological friction between the teeth of the maxilla and the teeth of the mandible, most often at night (teeth grinding). Its symptoms include elevated blood pressure and muscle cramps. It may be caused by stress, malocclusion, or mouth infection. Bruxism can lead to loosening of the teeth in both the maxilla and the mandible, damage to the temporomandibular joint and chronic headaches. It is treated by correcting the occlusion, e.g. by using relaxation mouth guards and taking medicines. We recommend NTI relaxation nightguard to our patients.



Cone Beam Computed Tomography is currently one of the fastest and most accurate methods of radiological diagnosis, with applications in every field of dentistry, surgery and implantology. CBCT’s innovation method uses a conical beam that irradiates during a single (rather than repeated) rotation around the patient’s head, which significantly shortens the test time and reduces the dose of radiation, which is important to the patient, while obtaining the highest quality images.

Calculus / Tartar

Plaque that has been mineralised and is a cause of periodontal disease.

Closure of the maxillary sinus

A surgical procedure involving the closure of the entrance to the maxillary sinus, which has been created as a result of tooth extraction.

Composite material

A material used to reconstruct tooth crown tissues. It is used to fill holes created by caries.

Crown and root insert

Insert that forms the foundation for a prosthetic crown. It protects the tooth against loss while restoring its crown.


Treatment of the gingival pockets using a curette (French, meaning scoop): the removal of bacterial plaque and tartar from the root of the tooth, which fill the gingival pocket together with the inflamed epithelial attachment.


Dead tooth

A tooth from which nerves have been removed, as a result of inflammation and root canal treatment. A tooth can also die as a result of untreated caries or injury.

Dental plaque

A sticky, bacterial coating that accumulates on the surface of the teeth. Over time, it develops into hard tartar, and if not removed it has a negative effect on the teeth and gums.


Fear of dental treatment.

Denture reline

Restoration of the inner surface of the prosthesis to compensate bone resorption. Performed by adding an acrylic layer to the prosthesis plate.


Commonly called tooth poisoning: A treatment involving placing pulp (nerve) mortifying material in the tooth chamber.


A slit or gap, especially in relation to the gap between the upper incisors. It is also a natural space between any two teeth in the jaw.

Dry socket

Complication after tooth extraction caused by the dislodging or rinsing away of the blood clot from the post-extraction wound, which results in impaired healing and severe pain. It can be caused by inappropriate post-extraction care from the patient, e.g. too fast food intake.



Field of dentistry dealing with the treatment and diagnosis of pulp diseases. Commonly, it concerns root canal treatment.

Exposed tooth neck

A condition consisting of receded gums, resulting from the effect of plaque and tartar components on the tooth. It is often caused by malocclusion.


Fixed orthodontic appliance

Used for permanent teeth, it is applied to correct malocclusion that cannot be corrected with a removable appliance. The fixed device consists of brackets (metal, composite, sapphire), which are glued to the tooth enamel with a special glue and rings.

Fluoride treatment

Coating teeth with fluoride varnish to protect against hypersensitivity and caries.

Frame denture

A prosthesis consisting of acrylic and a metal frame. The frame model is more comfortable for the patient when compared to acrylic dentures because it physiologically transfers the chewing forces to teeth and bones.



A natural substance used during root canal treatment to fill canals.



A surgical procedure involving the removal of one of the roots of the tooth together with the corresponding crown.


Manifested by pain that is caused by abrasion of tooth or tooth tissue.


Immediate prosthesis

An acrylic prosthesis that is applied to the patient immediately after tooth extraction.


A titanium device resembling a screw, which is inserted into the bone of the alveolar ridge, in order to replace the root of your own tooth. It is used to perform prosthetic restorations, such as crowns, bridges or prostheses.

Inhalation sedation

Method of patient anaesthesia using a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen. It is one of the most effective methods available for calming patients in dentistry.


An insert used to precisely replace a carious cavity. It is used mainly when the tooth crown has been severely damaged, e.g. by decay. When compared to composite fillings, it is more durable and tightly fitted to the tissues of the tooth.


Rinsing the mouth with water, under appropriate pressure. It is mainly intended to maintain appropriate hygiene levels in the oral cavity. It is recommended especially for people who have implants, crowns, bridges and prostheses. It can be done at home using a special device.


Lingual braces

Orthodontic appliance that is placed on the lingual surface of the tooth. It is invisible, which gives it a major advantage over other kinds of appliance.


A type of attachment mounted on an implant for a mobile prosthesis.


Maxillofacial surgery

Field of medicine dealing with the surgical treatment of the oral cavity, the facial part of the head, the front of the skull and the neck. Due to its range, this specialty is increasingly referred to as craniomaxillofacial surgery. It is a field of dentistry and surgery.


Orthodontic appliance

From Greek: orthos-straight and odous-tooth. It is used to restore the proper physiological occlusion between the maxilla and the mandible, aligning the teeth in the dental arches and treating malocclusion. There are both removable and fixed appliances. The dentist selects the type of appliance appropriate for the individual patient.


Field of dentistry dealing with the prevention and treatment of occlusion disorders, the development of dentition and the development of the craniofacial region.


A malocclusion in which the lower dental arch is shifted backwards in relation to the upper arch.



Field of dentistry dealing with the treatment of teeth and oral diseases in children.

Pantomogram (dental panoramic radiograph)

X-ray image containing a cross section of the maxilla and mandible.

Periodontal disease

Inflammatory conditions that damage the tissues surrounding the tooth. If left untreated, they can lead to loosening or even loss of the tooth.


Field of dentistry dealing with the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease (formerly known as periodontosis) and oral mucosa disease.


Periodontal disease, which often leads to loss of teeth. This obsolete term refers to all chronic processes of gingivitis that lead to loosening and, as a consequence, loss of teeth.


Congenital malocclusion. It consists of a large growth of the mandible in relation to the maxilla.

Prosthetic bridge

Permanent prosthetic restoration aimed at rebuilding one or more missing teeth.

Prosthetic crown

Prosthetic restoration designed to reproduce the shape and colour of the (natural) crown. It is possible to distinguish crowns based on the material they are made from: metal, gold and all-ceramic zirconium crowns, or temporary crowns made, for example, of composite material.

Prosthodontics (dental prosthetics)

Field of dentistry dealing with missing teeth and improving the aesthetics of the smile.



Field of dentistry dealing with oral imaging using X-rays.


Combination of ultrasonographic examination and X-ray. Using radiovisiography, the dentist is able to assess the length and shape of the canals and how well they are filled. This examination makes possible the detection of caries at an early stage.

Relaxation mouth guard

Used in people who have problems with temporomandibular joints, bruxism and occlusion problems.

Removable orthodontic appliance (so-called functional)

Made of acrylic mass and wire elements and, if necessary, an orthodontic screw. It is used to correct minor defects, mainly in school-age children.

Resection of the root apex

Surgical procedure involving cutting the tooth tip. Performed, for example, in cases of broken roots or changes around the apex that do not heal.


An appliance intended to maintain the results of orthodontic treatment. It is a thin wire usually glued to the lingual surface of the front teeth. The retainer can also be made by a prosthetic technician. The choice of retainer and the length of time it should be worn are determined individually and depend on the treated disorder and the age of the patient.


Sealant application

Protecting premolars and molars against caries, mainly in children.


Method of patient anaesthesia performed by an anaesthesiologist. Defined as a state of limited consciousness caused by pharmacological methods that make it possible for the patient to continue to react to physical stimuli or verbal commands. In sedation, short-acting intravenous medications are administered continuously. This method ensures constant control of the patient's level of awareness. The patient is sedated before surgery, after which the dentist performs local anaesthesia. From that moment, the patient may feel touching or pulling, but does not feel pain. It is possible to quickly deepen or reduce sedation depending on the patient's mood and the stage of treatment.


Reaction of the teeth to sweet, sour, cold and hot food or drinks.


Treatment used in orthodontics as an alternative to extraction. It involves filing down tooth enamel.


Tooth demineralisation

The phase of tooth decay that develops beneath the surface of the enamel. It is a reversible phase, but requires intensive care of the teeth, combined with a visit to the dentist.

Tooth extraction

Tooth removal procedure.

Tooth pulp

Tissue filling the tooth chamber. It is richly innervated and vascularised, and it includes immature embryonic connective tissue. It connects with the periodontium through the anatomical opening and lateral and ventricular canals.


Condition of total loss or removal of teeth from the mouth, e.g. as a result of caries. Absence of teeth caused by a developmental disorder, involving the lack of both teeth and buds, is known as anodontia.


Varnish application

Applying a special fluoride-based varnish to teeth.


A thin overlay fixed on the labial surface of the tooth. Its main task is to improve the aesthetics of the smile. Veneers are available in various materials: acrylic, composite and all-ceramic.



Treatment performed to restore teeth’s natural whiteness. There are many methods of teeth whitening, however the most effective are professional methods performed in a dental practice.

Wire retainers

Thin permanent or removable archwires used in orthodontic treatment.



A set of symptoms caused by a decrease in the function of the salivary glands with a normal mucous membrane. It leads to so-called dry mouth.


Zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE)

Dressing, temporary filling.


The chemical element from which we make highly aesthetic prosthetic crowns.